Marquis de Condorcet
The Condorcet Criterion gets its name from the Marquis de Condorcet, an 18th century mathematician, philosopher, and political thinker. Condorcet first proposed an election procedure based on the results of head-to-head matchups among the candidates. Note: Head-to-head matchups are those which involve only two candidates. For instance, if there are 4 candidates, A, B, C, and D, then there are 6 possible head-to-head matchups: A vs. B, A vs. C, A vs. D, B vs. C, B vs. D, and C vs. D. There is a formula that tells us the total number of head-to-head matchups for a given number of candidates.
The Condorcet Criterion