**Apportionment**

Apportionment is the process of allotting
identical, indivisible objects among participants entitled to unequal shares.

**Standard
Divisor**

The Standard Divisor is the average number of people per
seat over the entire population.

**Standard
Quota**

The Standard Quota is the fraction of the total number of
seats a state would be entitled to if the seats were not indivisible.

Note: SD is the Standard Divisor.

Note: Each State has a Standard Quota.

__Lower Quota__: The Standard
Quota rounded down

__Upper Quota__: The Standard
Quota rounded up

**Quota Rule**

An apportionment method that always allocates only lower
and/or upper bounds is called a quota rule.

*A particular apportionment that doesn't allocate only
lower and/or upper bounds is said to 'violate quota'.*

An apportionment method with which it is possible to 'violate quota' is said to 'violate
the Quota Rule'(regardless of whether any particular apportionment using that method
actually does so).

### The Arithmetic Mean and the Geometric Mean are used in
rounding rules for two of the apportionment methods we will be concerned with.

**The ARITHMETIC MEAN (or
AVERAGE) of 2 numbers ***a* & *b* is defined by:

**Ex: Find the arithmetic mean between 4 & 9.**

**AVG = (4 + 9) / 2 = 13 / 2 = 6.5**

**The GEOMETRIC MEAN, ***GM*,
of 2 numbers *a* & *b* is defined by:

**Ex: Find the geometric mean between 4 & 9.**

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