Apportionment is the process of allotting identical, indivisible objects among participants entitled to unequal shares.
The Standard Divisor is the average number of people per seat over the entire population.
The Standard Quota is the fraction of the total number of seats a state would be entitled to if the seats were not indivisible.
Note: SD is the Standard Divisor.
Note: Each State has a Standard Quota.
Lower Quota: The Standard Quota rounded down
Upper Quota: The Standard Quota rounded up
An apportionment method that always allocates only lower and/or upper bounds is called a quota rule.
A particular apportionment that doesn't allocate only
lower and/or upper bounds is said to 'violate quota'.
An apportionment method with which it is possible to 'violate quota' is said to 'violate the Quota Rule'(regardless of whether any particular apportionment using that method actually does so).
The ARITHMETIC MEAN (or AVERAGE) of 2 numbers a & b is defined by:
Ex: Find the arithmetic mean between 4 & 9.
AVG = (4 + 9) / 2 = 13 / 2 = 6.5
The GEOMETRIC MEAN, GM, of 2 numbers a & b is defined by:
Ex: Find the geometric mean between 4 & 9.